Spatial and Specific Variance in Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Tree Vegetation of Moscow City South-Western Administrative District

Belozubova N.1, Zubkova V.1, Kirillov N.1
1 Department of Ecology and Technospheric Safety, Russian State Social University, (RUSSIA)

Abstract

Research of Moscow residential and transportation landscapes was performed in 2018. Examined parameters included spatial and specific variance of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Cr accumulation by small-leaved linden (Tilia cordata), ash-leaved maple (Acer negundo), and hard maple (Acer saccharum). Non-uniform spatial distribution of heavy metals in tree leaves was determined, depending upon tree species, and location of the trees. Areas with top total concentrations of pollutants were located along the motorways with extensive traffic, and in industrial zones. It was found that zinc is the prevailing biogenic element within the examined spectrum. For Tilia cordata it comprises close to 77%, for Acer negundo – close to 80%, and for Acer saccharum – from 66% to 80% of the determined pollutants’ content. At the same time the share of copper varies within the 16-20% range. Increasing pressure causes anomalous changes in chemical composition of the plants, both in terms of biogenes, and polluting elements. That was demonstrated using an example of an ash-leaved maple growing in a 23rd public garden of Novye Cheremushki, and hard maple growing in 5 meters from a motorway. Specific property of tree foliage in city environment is high pollutant accumulation capacity. Top summary pollutant concentration coefficients in tree foliage were determined for the most heavily polluted areas. At the same time the content of heavy metals in leaves at some sites differed for Cu by a factor of 2, for Cr – 4, Zn – 14, Cd – 42, and Pb – 45.

Keywords: pollution, heavy metals, tree vegetation, accumulation, metals association, city landscapes.

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