Spatial and Specific Variance in Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Tree Vegetation of Moscow City South-Western Administrative District

Belozubova N.1, Zubkova V.1, Kirillov N.1
1 Department of Ecology and Technospheric Safety, Russian State Social University, (RUSSIA)

Abstract

Research of Moscow residential and transportation landscapes was performed in 2018. Examined parameters included spatial and specific variance of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Cr accumulation by small-leaved linden (Tilia cordata), ash-leaved maple (Acer negundo), and hard maple (Acer saccharum). Non-uniform spatial distribution of heavy metals in tree leaves was determined, depending upon tree species, and location of the trees. Areas with top total concentrations of pollutants were located along the motorways with extensive traffic, and in industrial zones. It was found that zinc is the prevailing biogenic element within the examined spectrum. For Tilia cordata it comprises close to 77%, for Acer negundo – close to 80%, and for Acer saccharum – from 66% to 80% of the determined pollutants’ content. At the same time the share of copper varies within the 16-20% range. Increasing pressure causes anomalous changes in chemical composition of the plants, both in terms of biogenes, and polluting elements. That was demonstrated using an example of an ash-leaved maple growing in a 23rd public garden of Novye Cheremushki, and hard maple growing in 5 meters from a motorway. Specific property of tree foliage in city environment is high pollutant accumulation capacity. Top summary pollutant concentration coefficients in tree foliage were determined for the most heavily polluted areas. At the same time the content of heavy metals in leaves at some sites differed for Cu by a factor of 2, for Cr – 4, Zn – 14, Cd – 42, and Pb – 45.

Keywords: pollution, heavy metals, tree vegetation, accumulation, metals association, city landscapes.

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Photosynthetic Activity of Plants and Dynamics of Growth Process in Soil Contaminated by Cadmium

Zubkova V.1, Manvelov A.1, Gorbunova V.1
1 Department of Ecology and Technosphere Safety, Russian State Social University, (RUSSIA)

Abstract

The article presents the results of field studies on the effect of different doses of cadmium on the assimilating leaf area, photosynthetic potential, its change as the area of the leaf surface formed in a particular interfacial period, and the duration of the interfacial period. The introduction of cadmium in a dose of 10 mg/kg of soil had a negative impact on the increase in the vegetation phases and on the accumulation of the total potato biomass by the end of the vegetation. At the same time, the output of the obtained products per 1000 units of photosynthetic potential decreased by 0.24 kg of tubers compared to the background version. On average, for 2 years of research, the maximum value of leaf productivity was observed at a dose of cadmium 1 mg/kg, which is most likely due not to the biological need for it, but to stimulating intoxication.

Keywords: heavy metals, cadmium, photosynthetic potential, net photosynthetic productivity, leaf productivity.

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Ensuring Food Security of Russia in the Conditions of Sanitation: Economic and Environmental Aspects

Gusareva N. B.1, Ugryumov C. S.1, Bataev V. V.1
1.Department of Economics, Russian State Social University (RUSSIA)

Abstract

The article is an analysis of the problems of ensuring of food security of Russia in terms of sanctions: economic and environmental aspects are considered. The authors conducted a theoretical analysis of the problem, revealed the factors underlying it, considered the key areas for ensuring Russia’s food security soon, and suggested the measures for their implementation.

Keywords: Food security, economic security, environmental security, sanctions, agro-industrial complex (AIC), government regulation.

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Ecological Insurance as a Financial Instrument for Environmental Protection

Khetagurova V. S.1, Kryukova Е. M.1, Еgorova Е. N.1
1 Russian State Social University (RUSSIA)

Abstract

The article deals with the formation of an environmental insurance system in the Russian Federation. The main aspects of its development as a financial instrument for environmental protection based on international experience are analyzed. The problems and ways to solve them are identified, concrete actions to improve the legislative framework in the field of environmental insurance are proposed. The system of environmental insurance is analyzed in terms of the economic assessment of damage to the environment caused by industrial and economic objects. Ecological insurance is considered as one of the ways to manage environmental risks. Recommendations are presented on the formation of special insurance reserve financial funds, the funds of which should be used to compensate for damage under insurance contracts. The obtained results serve the main purpose of the study – to identify problem areas in the system of environmental insurance and to develop concrete actions aimed at improving legislation in this area and modernizing the procedure.

Keywords: insurance funds, environmental risk, environmental insurance, damage, environmental management.

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On the Approach to Substantiating Decisions on The Elimination of the Effects of Domestic Gas Explosions

Rybakov A.1, Shmyrev V.2, Ponomarev A.3, Koverkina E.4
1 Doctor of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Technospheric Security and Ecology of the Russian State Social University (RUSSIA)
2 Ph. D., Associate professor, Head of Department at Faculty of Technospheric Security and Ecology, Russian State Social University (RUSSIA)
3 Assistant professor at Faculty of Technospheric Security and Ecology, Russian State Social University (RUSSIA)
4 Senior Lecturer at Faculty of Technospheric Security and Ecology, Russian State Social University (RUSSIA)

Abstract

The article proposes a method of calculating the attracted forces and assets, structural units that are part of a unified state system of prevention and liquidation of emergency situations, to eliminate the consequences of emergency situations associated with the explosions of household gas at residential facilities. The technique was implemented in the form of an interactive system for predicting the state of residential facilities in conditions of domestic gas explosions and developing proposals for the formation of a rational composition of the grouping of forces and means to eliminate the consequences of explosions.

Keywords: explosions, forces and means, household gas, information and control systems.

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Features of The Development and Influence of Landslide Processes on The Road A-149 Adler-Krasnaya Polyana in Krasnodar Region

Soshenko M.1, Zubkova V.1, Arslanbekova F.1
1 Russian State Social University, (RUSSIA)

Abstract

The article analyzes the formation of landslide processes on the territory of the section of the road A-149 Adler-Krasnaya Polyana, Krasnodar region. The slope stability assessment was carried out, as a result of which it was found that the slope is unstable and additional measures are required to stabilize it.

Keywords: landslide processes, road, landslide slope, anti-landslide structures.

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The Problem of Managing Municipal Solid Waste in The Context of a Sharing Economy

Karanashev A.1, Sinyuk T.2, Panfilova E.2
1 Doctor of Economic Sciences, Full Professor Kabardino-Balkarian State University, Department of Economics and Management in Tourism, Socio-humanitarian Institute (RUSSIA)
2 Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor Rostov State University of Economics (RUSSIA)

Abstract

The article deals with the problems of making and making decisions in the field of municipal solid waste management at the municipal level. The combination of systemic problems of management and financing are of importance as a result of the implementation of the reform of MSW in the Russian Federation. The study reflects the set of operational problems of the municipal organization, economic and mathematical substantiated resource constraints that impede the implementation of operational activities and the algorithm for developing and making management decisions at the level of the municipality.

Keywords: Waste management system, continual improvement, Solid Waste Management, Sustainable waste management

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Safety at Work at Height in Construction

Manvelov A.1, Soshenko M.1, Arslanbekova F.1
1 Department of Ecology and Technospheric Safety, Russian State Social University, (RUSSIA)

Abstract

In the last decade, there has been an increase in the number of industrial accidents with many casualties and significant material losses. According to the International organization for labor protection (ILO), as a result of industrial accidents in the world in 2018, about 350,000 people died, more than 2 million people died from occupational diseases. As for injuries without lethal outcome, the statistics are even more depressing: 330 million workers are injured every year, 160 million are ill with occupational diseases [13]. In Russia in 2017, 25,400 people suffered from accidents at work, including 1138 people with fatal outcome, the number of people with occupational disease established in the reporting year was 4756 people [1]. Out of 136435 registered enterprises in the Russian Federation, 11454 are construction companies. Construction all over the world is one of the dangerous anthropogenic factors affecting the environment, a source of irreparable negative consequences for the ecological balance of ecosystems [14]. And at the same time, the construction industry is important in the development of the national economy: the economic efficiency of related sectors of the economy is largely ensured by the intensive development of construction. Construction meets the rapidly growing needs of economic systems and meets the demands of conventional construction, renovation, operation and dismantling of buildings in all countries.

Keywords: risk factors, occupational injuries at work at height in construction, the conditions of construction labor, occupational safety and health at work at height in construction, measures to improve working conditions, monitoring of working conditions, harmful and dangerous working conditions, temporary disability

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The Contribution of Weather and Climatic Conditions in Shaping Population Health

Yakovleva T. P.1, Soshenko M.1, Arslanbekova F.1
1 Department of Ecology and Technospheric Safety, Russian State Social University, (RUSSIA)

Abstract

Objective: to assess the contribution of natural and climatic conditions to the formation of health of the population living in the third climatic zone of Russia (compared to the second zone); the relationship between the daily calls for emergency medical care of the adult population in connection with diseases of the circulatory system and daily levels of meteorological parameters. The object of the study was the adult population living in different climatic zones of Russia with different winter temperatures (-9,0 °C; -18,0 °C). The contribution of the climate factor was assessed by calculating the hypothetical (standardized) mortality rate (SIR) for cerebrovascular diseases (CVB) according to the international classification of diseases (ICD-X). The index method was used to assess the contribution of the studied factor to the formation of public health. Оur research has shown that living in natural and climatic conditions with low winter temperatures contributes to an increase in the mortality rate of men from cerebrovascular diseases (CVB).

Keywords: climatic zone, socio-economic characteristics of the region, age groups, mortality of rural population, challenges to emergency medical care.

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Disclosure of Environmental Responsibility Information in the Corporate Reporting of Economic Entities

Rozhnova O.1, Mayorova E.2
1 Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation (RUSSIA)
2 Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (RUSSIA)

Abstract

This article examines the topical issues within the corporate, social, and environmental responsibility reporting of economic entities. It focuses on studying the users of such reporting. The article presents relevant classification of users of environmental and social reporting information according to important characteristics amid ongoing digitization and globalization. After reviewing the results of a survey conducted among the employees of financial and accounting functions in medium-sized companies about environmental and social responsibility reporting, the authors concluded that the current situation favours further development of such reporting.

Keywords: Corporate social responsibility, environmental responsibility, business model, financial reporting, environmental reporting, integrated reporting, users of reporting information.

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