Modern Methods to Sustainable Development Assessment

Sopilko N. Yu.1, Myasnikova O. Yu.2, Shamseev S. V.1, Kubasova E. I.1
1 Russian State Social University (RUSSIA)
2 Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUSSIA)

Abstract

The paper offers a review of evolution approaches to the sustainable development assessment in different world countries and in Russian practice. The research is based on the analysis of world practice assessment of sustainable development effectiveness, relevant methodologies, indicators and their modifications in modern conditions. The existing problems in developing of indicators for the sustainable state measuring of various countries with different development level are characterized. The difficulties of cross-country comparison of these indicators are highlighted. The most important aspects of sustainable development assessment, such as indicators and investments are considered. The main directions of sustainable development assessment for Russia are determined at the present stage of the national economy development.

Keywords: Sustainable Development of economy, sustainable development indicators, investments, modern assessment methods, etc.

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Theoretical and Methodological Basis of Economic Dynamics as a Reflection of the Interaction of Economic, Social and Ecological Systems

Melnik M.1, Loktionova J.1, Yanina O.1
1 Russian State Social University (RUSSIA)

Abstract

An important scientific problem is the assessment of the interaction of economic, social and ecological components in the former social ecological and economic systems, the identification of patterns of their cross impact and the definition on this basis of options for projection of socioeconomic development with the preservation of the natural environment. The article analyses the improvement of modelling processes on the formation of optimal socioecological and economic systems in order to reduce the negative impact of substantive production on the human habitat. It also marks the influence of changes in some variables on the change in the others in the process of complex systems formation.

Keywords: economic dynamics, model, economy, environment, system, substantive production, variables, world system, global crisis.

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Interrelation of Social, Economic, Environmental Problems in Context of Sustainable Economic Development

Andryushchenko G.1, Savina M.1, Gridneva T.1
1 Russian State Social University (RUSSIA)

Abstract

The article deals with the main factors of sustainable development of the economy and its individual subjects, the relationship between the social, economic, environmental categories of sustainable development, as well as contradictions and opposition arising in the process of transition to a new model of economic development and the necessary measures for the implementation of this transition.

Keywords: development, ecology, ecologization of economy, green economy, model of consumption, economic growth, self-limitation

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System Challenges to Sustainable Humanity Development

Orekhov D. V.1, Prichina S. O.2, Shchennikova S. E.3
1 International Institute of Management LINK, (RUSSIA),
2 Russian State Social University, (RUSSIA),
3 Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, (RUSSIA)

Abstract

The purpose of the research is to analyze the challenges to sustainable world development, associated with the evolution of humanity as a system, considering the interrelated processes of demographic transition, growth of knowledge and GDP dynamics. It is shown that the mathematical model of human population during demographic transition, based on the women’s choice between having many children and employment, is in good agreement with the average population projection according to the UN. It was determined that the demographic dynamics begin to deviate from a hyperbolic growth after the value of the world GDP per capita achieves (G/N)dem5070 USD per person in international dollars of 2017.An analysis of the growth over time of the amount of explicit knowledge (Z) accumulated in the largest libraries of the world showed that their dynamics are well described by the dependence Z30(N(Т–25)/N0)1.25. It is shown that the global GDP growth is proportional to the number of people and the amount of explicit knowledge: G =kN(Т–25)2.25. As a result of the existence of the maximum number of people Nmax ≈ 11 billion, the amount of human knowledge, as well as the average GDP per capita have a value limit, with Zmax = 60 million CB, Gmax = 54,500 international dollars of 2017. The transition to the specified limit values in less than a century will lead to a drastic change in the world dynamics compared to the current dynamics. These changes can cause destabilization of world relations, thus threatening with international conflicts.

Keywords: sustainable development, systematic approach, world dynamics, demographic transition, GDP, forecast, knowledge, limits of growth

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Shades of Green: Differences in Green Growth Priorities

Shpilina T.M.1, Solodukha P.V.1, Pochinok N.B.1
1 Russian State Social University (RUSSIA)

Abstract

Today the main goal of the macroeconomic policy is to ensure sustainable development. The main direction of its achievement is an orientation to the “green” vector of development. All participants in the world economy, depending on their level of socio-economic development, differently determine the goals and objectives of the transition to green growth. This fact led to the identification of three strategies to form a model of sustainable development: progressive, egocentric and deterrent. For each of them, priority directions of development are identified. Some of these directions are opportunistic in nature, others direction is caused by forced adaptation to existing global realities and internal problems, and the third direction are determined by the need to overcome internal macroeconomic contradictions, which are barriers to the transition to a green economy. It has been proven that the lack of common priorities and goals for achieving “green” growth leads to the “blocking effect” of all effective international initiatives in this area. All these trends can lead to unpredictable negative consequences.

Keywords: green economy, sustainable development, green growth strategies.

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Investing “Green” Economy in Russia

Evdokimova J.1, Belotelova N.1, Bondarenko A.1
1 Associate Professor of Finance and credit Department, Russian State Social University, (RUSSIA)

Abstract

The authors consider the existing financial opportunities and tools used to Finance the “green” economy. The analysis of the main world results achieved in the field of “green” investment is made. The structural analysis of Russian companies from the standpoint of the availability of investment in “green” projects has been carried out. The preconditions and measures aimed at developing the market of “green” Finance in Russia are revealed.

Keywords: green economy, green Finance, green investment, green lending.

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The Role of Environmental Tourism in the System of Environmental and Economic Innovation Development of the Russian Federation

Khetagurova V. Sh.1, Kryukova E. M.1, Mukhomorova I.V.1
1Russian State Social University (RUSSIA)

Abstract

The problem of developing eco-tourism is multidimensional and requires detailed study. Given the rich natural resources, Russia is promising for the development of domestic and inbound tourism, including environmental tourism. The successful development of which depends largely on the effectiveness of its promotion on the market as a tourist product, that is, on targeted tourist marketing. The article analyzes the approaches in terminology, analyzes the current state of ecological tourism in Russia, reveals the relationship and prospects for its development, identifies constraints for its development, and assesses opportunities for the development of ecotourism in Russia. Ecotourism as an element of the market can serve the environmental, socio-cultural and economic interests of a person, society and the state.

Keywords: tourism industry, ecological tourism, innovative development, environment.

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Competitive Advantages and Sustainable Development of Russian Agrarian Sector

1 Vukovic, B. D.1,2 & Zinurova, R. Y.3 1Finance and credit department, Faculty of Economics, People’s Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University) (RUSSIA)
2 Geographical Institute “Jovan Cvijić”, Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (SERBIA) 3Department for Finance, St. Petersburg School of Economics and Management, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Sankt Petersburg, (RUSSIA)

Abstract

The performance of Russian Agricultural Sector under international economic restrictions is a matter of concern. In this article we analyse the impact of international economic restrictions and macroeconomic factors on the output of Russian agricultural sector. We employed ARIMAX model with the time period from 1991 to 2017, using nine economic factors as covariates and agricultural value added as a dependent variable. It was found that despite on negative impact of sanctions on special aspects of Russian economy, international economic restrictions of 2014 at the end of 2017 had a significant and positive effect on the output of Russian agricultural sector.

Keywords: agricultural sector, Russian agriculture, international economic restrictions, import substitution, time series model, ARIMAX

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Urban Forestry as Part of Green Cities: The Evidence from Research and Academy Areas

Vukovic N.1, Mingaleva Z.2, Shmyrev V.1
1 Russian State Social University (RUSSIA)
2 Perm National Research Polytechnic University (RUSSIA)

Abstract

Currently there are more than 7 billion people living on Earth. In 2016, there were 512 cities with at least 1 million inhabitants globally. That means that the pressure on natural resources is increasing every day, especially because starting from 2008, share of urban population exceeds fifty percent. In order to improve the quality of life for city inhabitants and coming generations, cities are to become greener. Hence, the concept of urban forestry can be considered a part of sustainable green economy and green cities. Education and science are very important for sustainable development of urban forests. The paper investigates activities of educational and scientific organizations in the field of urban forests.

Keywords: green city, sustainability, forestry, urban forestry, research area, academy area.

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Spatial and Specific Variance in Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Tree Vegetation of Moscow City South-Western Administrative District

Belozubova N.1, Zubkova V.1, Kirillov N.1
1 Department of Ecology and Technospheric Safety, Russian State Social University, (RUSSIA)

Abstract

Research of Moscow residential and transportation landscapes was performed in 2018. Examined parameters included spatial and specific variance of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Cr accumulation by small-leaved linden (Tilia cordata), ash-leaved maple (Acer negundo), and hard maple (Acer saccharum). Non-uniform spatial distribution of heavy metals in tree leaves was determined, depending upon tree species, and location of the trees. Areas with top total concentrations of pollutants were located along the motorways with extensive traffic, and in industrial zones. It was found that zinc is the prevailing biogenic element within the examined spectrum. For Tilia cordata it comprises close to 77%, for Acer negundo – close to 80%, and for Acer saccharum – from 66% to 80% of the determined pollutants’ content. At the same time the share of copper varies within the 16-20% range. Increasing pressure causes anomalous changes in chemical composition of the plants, both in terms of biogenes, and polluting elements. That was demonstrated using an example of an ash-leaved maple growing in a 23rd public garden of Novye Cheremushki, and hard maple growing in 5 meters from a motorway. Specific property of tree foliage in city environment is high pollutant accumulation capacity. Top summary pollutant concentration coefficients in tree foliage were determined for the most heavily polluted areas. At the same time the content of heavy metals in leaves at some sites differed for Cu by a factor of 2, for Cr – 4, Zn – 14, Cd – 42, and Pb – 45.

Keywords: pollution, heavy metals, tree vegetation, accumulation, metals association, city landscapes.

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